HNPCC is caused by germline mutation of the DNA mismatch repair genes. Over 95 % of HNPCC patients have mutations in either MLH1 or MSH2. As a result, sequencing for mismatch repair gene mutations in suspected HNPCC families is usually limited to MLH1 and MSH2 and sometimes MSH6 and PMS2. In general, MSH6 and PMS2 sequence analysis is performed in persons meeting aforementioned criteria for genetic testing for HNPCC, and who do not have mutations in either the MLH1 or MSH2 genes. In addition, single site MSH6 or PMS2 testing may be appropriate for testing family members of persons with HNPCC with an identified MSH6 or PMS2 gene mutation.
Polymyositis and the associated inflammatory myopathies have an associated increased risk of malignancy .  The features they found associated with an increased risk of cancer was older age, age greater than 45, male sex, dysphagia, cutaneous necrosis, cutaneous vasculitis , rapid onset of myositis (<4 weeks), elevated creatine kinase , higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate and higher C-reactive protein levels. Several factors were associated with lower-than-average risk, including the presence of ILD, arthritis / arthralgia , Raynaud's syndrome , or anti-Jo-1 antibody.  The malignancies that are associated are nasopharyngeal cancer , lung cancer , non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and bladder cancer , amongst others.