There are several principles on which empirical thermometers are built, as listed in the section of this article entitled "Primary and secondary thermometers". Several such principles are essentially based on the constitutive relation between the state of a suitably selected particular material and its temperature. Only some materials are suitable for this purpose, and they may be considered as "thermometric materials". Radiometric thermometry, in contrast, can be only slightly dependent on the constitutive relations of materials. In a sense then, radiometric thermometry might be thought of as "universal". This is because it rests mainly on a universality character of thermodynamic equilibrium, that it has the universal property of producing blackbody radiation.
RTDs are wire windings or other thin film serpentines that exhibit changes in resistance with changes in measure temperature using the positive temperature coefficient of electrical resistance of metals. The hotter they become, the higher the value of their electrical resistance. Platinum is the most commonly used material because it is nearly linear over a wide range of temperatures, is very accurate, and has a fast response time. RTDs can also be made of copper or nickel. o Advantages of RTDs include their stable output for long periods of time. They are also easy to calibrate and provide very accurate readings. o Disadvantages include a smaller overall temperature range, higher initial cost, and a less rugged design