This application note describes the extraction of cocaine and major metabolites from whole blood, prior to GC/MS analysis. This protocol also allows the simultaneous extraction of various other drugs of abuse classes: amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines and opiates.
ISOLUTE® SLE+ columns with 1 mL sample capacity are used to extract whole blood samples following a straightforward sample dilution. No protein precipitation or other pre-treatment is required prior to sample loading. The sample preparation procedure delivers clean extracts, good recoveries and RSD values and LLOQs from 20 ng/mL (analyte dependant).
Tags: Anhydroecgonine Methyl Ester AEME , Anhydroecgonine methyl ester , Application Notes , Benzoylecgonine , Clinical , Cocaethylene , Cocaine , Cocaines , Column , Drugs of Abuse , Ecgonine Methyl Ester EME , English , Forensic , GC-MS , Whole blood
On abrupt or overly rapid discontinuation of lorazepam, anxiety, and signs of physical withdrawal have been observed, similar to those seen on withdrawal from alcohol and barbiturates. Lorazepam, as with other benzodiazepine drugs, can cause physical dependence , addiction , and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome . The higher the dose and the longer the drug is taken, the greater the risk of experiencing unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal symptoms can, however, occur from standard dosages and also after short-term use. Benzodiazepine treatment should be discontinued as soon as possible via a slow and gradual dose reduction regimen.  Rebound effects often resemble the condition being treated, but typically at a more intense level and may be difficult to diagnose. Withdrawal symptoms can range from mild anxiety and insomnia to more severe symptoms such as seizures and psychosis . The risk and severity of withdrawal are increased with long-term use, use of high doses, abrupt or over-rapid reduction, among other factors. Short-acting benzodiazepines such as lorazepam are more likely to cause a more severe withdrawal syndrome compared to longer-acting benzodiazepines.