Blood doping is the practice of misusing certain techniques and substances to increase the red blood cell mass in the body. Since the red blood cells carry oxygen to the muscles, this allows the body to transport more oxygen to working muscles and therefore can increase their aerobic capacity and endurance. There are three widely known substances or methods used for blood doping, namely, erythropoietin (EPO), synthetic oxygen carriers and blood transfusions*. The primary use of blood transfusions and synthetic oxygen carriers are for patients who have suffered massive blood loss, either during a major surgical procedure or caused by major trauma. Erythropoietin is used in the treatment of anemia related to kidney disease. However, misuse of these substances and techniques could lead to:
HCG is a highly beneficial hormone in fertility stimulation and in the treatment of low testosterone. In fact, it is rapidly becoming an integral part of many low testosterone treatment plans. For the anabolic steroid user, the performance enhancing athlete, HCG can be beneficial but it can also be damaging. Many get very carried away with on cycle use and lead themselves to an early low testosterone condition. Granted, most men will benefit from testosterone therapy at some point in their life regardless, but many steroid users end up requiring sooner and often due to improper HCG use. The hormone can be beneficial but use must be kept moderate and monitored.
In addition to the mentioned side effects several others have been reported. In both males and females acne are frequently reported, as well as hypertrophy of sebaceous glands, increased tallow excretion, hair loss, and alopecia. There is some evidence that anabolic steroid abuse may affect the immune system, leading to a decreased effectiveness of the defense system. Steroid use decreases the glucose tolerance, while there is an increase in insulin resistance. These changes mimic Type II diabetes. These changes seem to be reversible after abstention from the drugs.