East Germany decided to upgrade the fortifications in the late 1960s to establish a "modern frontier" that would be far more difficult to cross. Barbed-wire fences were replaced with harder-to-climb expanded metal barriers; directional anti-personnel mines and anti-vehicle ditches blocked the movement of people and vehicles; tripwires and electric signals helped guards to detect escapees; all-weather patrol roads enabled rapid access to any point along the border; and wooden guard towers were replaced with prefabricated concrete towers and observation bunkers. 
Hardegen continued to sink Allied shipping on New York’s doorstep. On January 15, U-123 sent two eels into the Coimbra, a British tanker that broke and then exploded. “The effect was amazing, strong detonation, fire column reaching 200 meters and the whole sky was illuminated…,” Hardegen later wrote. “Quite a bonfire we leave behind for the Yankees as navigational help.” He did not bother submerging his boat after the attack, yet no US response came. No planes ventured out after the sub and no destroyers left for sorties. In fact, nothing stopped Hardegen from making another kill: the freighter San José. This latest victim was sent to the bottom in shallows 1,000 yards away from the coast guard base at Atlantic City, New Jersey, where an unarmed patrol craft that had been sent out to find the U-boat was having its engines repaired.
By the early 1890s there were shuls (synagogues), chevrot (clubs and societies) steiblech (makeshift places of worship) all over the Spitalfields, Whitechapel and St George's area. There are records of shuls in Artillery Lane (Sandys Row), Duke's Place, Fournier Street (the Great Synagogue, Spitalfields) Goulston Street, Hanbury Street, New Court, Fashion Street, Old Castle Street, Old Montague Street, Pelham Street, Princelet Street (United Friends), Spital Square, Union Street and White's Row. In Thrawl Street, off Brick Lane, was the Etz Chaim Yeshiva (Tree of Life) Rabbinical Seminary.