Burkholderia (formerly Pseudomonas ) pseudomallei is a gram-negative bacillus isolated from soil, stagnant streams, ponds, rice paddies, and market produce in endemic areas and can cause epizootics in sheep, goats, swine, horses, and seals.[4,33,43,45,77] Humans contract disease from contamination of abrasions with soil but may also ingest or inhale organisms.[4,45] Melioidosis is endemic to southeast Asia and northern Australia, but it may occur anywhere between 20 degrees north and south latitudes.[4,45] It is most widespread in Thailand where it accounts for 19% of hospitalizations and 40% of deaths from community-acquired septicemia. Mild or subclinical infections are common; 80% of Thai children are seropositive by age five years.